By G. Samuel. Jewish Theological Seminary.
Substantial contribution of submicroscopical Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte carriage to the infectious reservoir in an area of seasonal transmission buy discount tinidazole online. Features of recrudescent chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum infections confer a survival advantage on parasites discount 500mg tinidazole free shipping, and have implications for disease control cheap tinidazole 500 mg. Host heterogeneity is a determinant of competitive exclusion or coexistence in genetically diverse malaria infections. Association of house spraying with suppressed levels of drug resistance in Zimbabwe. Malaria cannot be diagnosed accurately with any one set of clinical criteria, as the signs and symptoms (fever, chills, headache and anorexia) are non-specifc and are common to many diseases and conditions. The appropriateness of particular clinical diagnostic criteria varies from area to area according to the intensity of transmission, the prevalent species of malaria parasite and other prevailing causes of fever (3). The concurrent incidence of other diseases with malaria may also affect its presentation. A Detailed weighting and scoring systems for clinical signs and symptoms of malaria 3 may improve the accuracy of clinical diagnosis but still result in low sensitivity and specifcity (studies in The Gambia achieved a sensitivity of 70–88% and a specifcity of 63–82%). These methods may be too complicated to implement and supervise under operational conditions, and many of the key symptoms and signs of malaria in one area may not be applicable elsewhere (5, 6). A review of 10 studies indicated that use of the more restrictive criteria in clinical algorithms resulted in only trivial savings in drug costs in comparison with the use of a fever-based diagnosis, and, in areas of high prevalence, greatly increased the probability of missing malaria infections (7). Light microscopy Microscopy not only provides a highly sensitive, specifc diagnosis of malaria when performed well but also allows quantifcation of malaria parasites and identifcation of the infecting species. Light microscopy involves relatively high costs for training and supervision, and the accuracy of diagnosis is strongly dependent on the competence of the microscopist. Microscopy technicians may also contribute to the diagnosis of non-malarial diseases. Although nucleic acid amplifcation-based tests are more sensitive, light microscopy is still considered the “feld standard” against which the sensitivity and specifcity of other methods must be assessed. A skilled microscopist can detect asexual parasites at a density of < 10 per µL of blood, but under typical feld conditions, the limit of sensitivity is approximately 100 parasites per µL (8). This limit of detection approximates the lower end of the pyrogenic density range. Thus, microscopy provides good specifcity for diagnosing malaria as the cause of a presenting febrile illness. More sensitive methods allow detection of an increasing proportion of cases of incidental parasitaemia in endemic areas, thus reducing the specifcity of a positive test. Good performance of microscopy can be diffcult to maintain, because of the requirements for adequate training and supervision of laboratory staff to ensure competence in malaria diagnosis, electricity, good quality slides and stains, provision and maintenance of good microscopes and maintenance of quality assurance and control of laboratory services. Numerous attempts have been made to improve malaria microscopy, but none has proven to be superior to the classical method of Giemsa staining and oil-immersion microscopy for performance in typical health care settings (9). Cassettes and cards are easier to use in diffcult conditions outside health facilities. The tests have many potential advantages, including: • rapid provision of results and extension of diagnostic services to the lowest-level health facilities and communities; 138 • fewer requirements for training and skilled personnel (for instance, a general health worker can be trained in 1 day); and • reinforcement of patient confdence in the diagnosis and in the health service in general. Severe malaria on Not a Yes Microscopy admission alone can also show Follow-up of parasite density. Health workers Microscopy in the community requires and at health Yes No a reliable posts electricity supply. Although providers of care may be willing to perform diagnostic tests, they do not, however, always respond appropriately to the results. It is therefore important to ensure the accuracy of parasite- based diagnosis and also to demonstrate this to users and to provide them with the resources to manage both positive and negative results adequately (16). Immunodiagnosis and nucleic acid amplifcation test methods Detection of antibodies to parasites, which may be useful for epidemiological studies, is neither sensitive nor specifc enough to be of use in the management of patients suspected of having malaria (17). They are also useful for studies of drug resistance and other specialized epidemiological investigations (18); however, they are not generally available for large-scale feld use in malaria- endemic areas, nor are they appropriate for routine diagnosis in endemic areas where a large proportion of the population may have low-density parasitaemia. At present, nucleic acid-based amplifcation techniques have no role in the clinical management of malaria or in routine surveillance systems (19). Malaria and human immunodefciency virus infection among male employees of a sugar estate in Malawi. A prospective evaluation of a clinical algorithm for the diagnosis of malaria in Gambian children. Clinical predictors of malaria in Gambian children with fever or a history of fever. Major reduction in anti-malarial drug consumption in Senegal after nation-wide introduction of malaria rapid diagnostic tests. Challenges in monitoring the impact of interventions against malaria using diagnostics. The method ensures a transparent link between the evidence and the recommendations (see section 1. It may also be used as follow-on treatment in severe malaria when the patient is well enough to take oral medication. This combination is currently recommended in the Sahel region of sub-Saharan Africa in areas where malaria transmission is intense and where the majority (>60%) of clinical malaria cases occur during a short period (≤ 4 months) (2).
However purchase 1000 mg tinidazole otc, regardless of one’s natural abilities discount tinidazole online visa, communica- tion skills and questioning techniques generic tinidazole 500 mg amex, especially when it comes to communicating with patients, are learned and take time to develop. This chapter examines the most pertinent skills required to conduct a comprehensive medication history. These skills and questioning techniques include: • Active listening • Empathy • Building rapport • Open-ended questions • Closed-ended questions • Leading questions • Silence • “Why” questions • Nonverbal communication cues active Listening The first communication skill to be mastered is listening, specifically active listen- ing. Listening is defined as hearing what is being said, whereas active listening is a dynamic process that includes both hearing what is being said as well as processing and interpreting the words that are spoken (and/or unspoken) to understand the complete message that is being delivered. Whereas listening is a passive process, active listening requires the listener to consciously choose to give the patient atten- tion and concentration that is free of distractions and interruptions, both external and internal. External distractions include ringing telephones, flickering computer screens, and other infringing per- sonal and/or other duties. These external distractions can be avoided by interacting with your patient in a place that is free of such distractions. Internal distractions occur for two major reasons: (1) many matters, unre- lated to the patient in front of you, may occupy your mind and (2) it is difficult 4 chapter 1 / the patient interview to perceive what the patient is saying without tainting his or her message with your personal judgment. The first reason can be addressed by making a conscious effort to concentrate solely on your interaction with the patient. This is more dif- ficult to accomplish than it sounds, but, with practice, turning on the “listening switch” in your mind will become easier. The second reason is more difficult to 1 address, because instinct often leads us to judge or evaluate what the patient is saying based on our own frame of reference. Biases, prejudices, and judgments cloud the message that is being delivered by the patient, which, in turn, affect the patient interaction, and possibly clinical outcomes. For example, as you prepare 2 for a patient who has been referred to you for smoking cessation counseling, you read in several progress notes that the patient “refuses to give up smoking. Therefore, as your patient is talking about reasons why it is difficult for him to quit smoking, your mind is hearing what is being said but is interpreting it as excuses rather than reasons that you may be able to address with the patient to assist him in quitting smoking. One way to overcome internal distractions is by being present in the moment, during your patient visit, addressing your patient’s current concerns without focusing on your preconceived notions. Sympathy is when you feel sorry for the patient but do not feel the same emotions or are not in the same situation, whereas empathy is when you place yourself in your patient’s situation and respond based on either similar personal experiences or through vicarious understanding. When you express empathy, it allows your patient to feel as though you understand his or her unique experience and that you are applying your expertise to the patient as an individual. Empathy can be shown in several ways, and each way will depend upon the partic- ular patient as well as the situation. For example, nodding your head, making a state- ment, or asking a follow-up question can show empathy. For example, saying to your patient who has been communication skills 5 diagnosed with cancer, “I know just how you are feeling. At first, he was just so overwhelmed and upset” may make the patient feel like you are not truly listening to her, but rather assuming that she will respond like anyone else with a cancer diagnosis. It may be better to say, “I know from some personal experiences that finding out about cancer can be very overwhelming. Building a good rapport sets the tone for the interview and allows the patient to feel comfortable with you, thereby making the lines of communication more open and honest. Patients may sometimes withhold information if they feel uncomfortable or anxious about sharing their complaints because of a lack of feeling respected, feeling as though their words are not being heard, or quite simply not knowing who you are and what your role is in their care. Therefore, starting the interview by greeting the patient by name, making sure you are pronouncing the patient’s name correctly, asking how he or she prefers to be addressed, and adding a title to his or her name, if preferred, will indicate your interest in the patient and show that you care. You should also give your name and title and then briefly describe the purpose of the interview. I am the pharmacist who is part of your medical team, and I am here to ask you a few questions about what brought you to the hospital and discuss the medications you have been taking at home. Is it okay for me to speak to you with your family/friends in the room or would you prefer to be alone while we talk? In general, open-ended questioning is the preferred technique to use during patient interviews to compel the patient to provide more in-depth and insightful responses. Because open- ended questions do not limit the patient to responding with a yes or no, they encour- age the patient to disclose more information. For example, you can start the interview by asking an open-ended question, such as “How are you feeling today? For example, if you ask the patient a closed-ended question such as, “Do you take your medications as directed by your physician? Instead, if you ask the patient an open- ended question, such as “How are you taking this medication? By gathering more information with open-ended questioning, you may learn that there are dis- crepancies between how the patient is actually taking the medication and how it has been prescribed. Oftentimes, a patient answers, “Yes, I am taking it as directed,” but you then discover that this is not the case, perhaps as a result of dishonesty but more likely because the patient believes that he or she is taking the medication correctly. The use of open-ended questions enables you to gather more information from the patient and to be more complete and accurate in your assessment; this, in turn, leads to appropriate patient-specific care. Closed-ended questions do play a role in communicating with a patient; however, the use of close-ended questions should be specific to the information you want to col- lect.
Among 12 patients randomly assigned to di- valproex 1000 mg tinidazole amex, only 6 completed a 10-week trial order tinidazole 1000mg visa, 5 of whom responded in terms of global measures tinidazole 300 mg otc. There was improvement in depression, albeit not statistically significant, and aggression was unchanged. In summary, preliminary evidence suggests that lithium carbonate and the mood stabilizers carbamazepine and divalproex may be useful in treating behavioral dyscontrol and affective dysregulation in some patients with borderline personality disorder, although further studies are needed. Because of the paucity of evidence concerning these agents, careful consideration of the risks and benefits is recommended when using such medi- cations pending the publication of findings from systematic studies. More common side effects include polyuria, polydipsia, weight gain, cognitive problems (e. Lithium is potentially fatal in overdose and should be used with caution in patients at risk of suicide. Other side effects include skin rash, mild leukopenia or thrombocytopenia, and hyponatremia. Rare, idiosyncratic, but potentially fatal side effects include agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, hepatic failure, exfoliative dermatitis, and pancreati- tis. In studies of patients with borderline personality disorder, carbamazepine has been reported to cause melancholic depression (64). Common dose-related side effects of valproate include gastrointestinal distress (e. With long- Treatment of Patients With Borderline Personality Disorder 61 Copyright 2010, American Psychiatric Association. Rare, idiosyncratic, but potentially fatal adverse events include hepatic failure, pancreatitis, and agranulocytosis. Lithium carbonate and the anticonvulsant mood stabilizers are used in their full therapeutic doses, with plasma levels guiding dosing. Routine pre- cautions observed for the use of these medications in other disorders also apply to their use in bor- derline personality disorder, e. Anxiolytic agents a) Goals Anxiolytic medications are used to treat the many manifestations of anxiety in patients with bor- derline personality disorder, both as an acute and as a chronic symptom. Cowdry and Gardner (55) included alprazolam in their double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study of outpatients with borderline personality disorder, comorbid hysteroid dysphoria, and extensive histories of behavioral dyscontrol. This occurred in 7 (58%) of 12 patients taking alprazolam compared with 1 (8%) of 13 patients re- ceiving placebo. However, in a small number of patients (N=3), alprazolam was noted to be help- ful for anxiety in carefully selected patients with borderline personality disorder (52). Case reports suggest that clonazepam is helpful as an adjunctive agent in the treatment of impulsivity, violent outbursts, and anxiety in a variety of disorders, including borderline personality disorder (54). Although clinicians have presented preliminary experiences with nonbenzodiazepine anxiolyt- ics in patients with borderline personality disorder (e. Benzodiazepines, in general, should be used with care because of the potential for abuse and the development of pharmacological tol- erance with prolonged use. Opiate antagonists have been employed in an attempt to block mutilation-induced analgesia and euphoria and thereby reduce self-injurious behavior in patients with borderline per- sonality disorder. One small, double-blind study involving female patients with borderline personality disor- der with a history of self-injurious behavior who underwent a stress challenge showed no effect of opiate receptor blockade with naloxone on cold pressor pain perception or mood ratings (191). While the stress level may not have been high enough to mimic clinical situations, the study does not support the theory that opiate antagonism plays a role in reducing self-injurious behavior. Despite the few promising clinical case reports, these reports are very preliminary, and there is no clear evidence from well-controlled trials indicating that opiate antagonists are effective in reducing self-injurious behavior among patients with borderline personality disorder. No time limit for treatment emerges from the literature, but the effect is presumably reversed when the medication stops. Neuroleptics a) Goals The primary goal of treatment with neuroleptics in borderline personality disorder is to reduce acute symptom severity in all symptom domains, particularly schizotypal symptoms, psychosis, anger, and hostility. However, affective symptoms (mood, anxiety, anger) and somatic complaints also improved with low doses of haloperidol, perphenazine, and thio- thixene. An open-label trial of thioridazine (mean dose=92 mg/day) led to marked improve- ment in impulsive-behavioral symptoms, global symptom severity, and overall borderline psychopathology (78). Similar findings were reported for adolescents with borderline person- ality disorder treated with flupentixol (mean dose=3 mg/day) (77), with improvement in im- pulsivity, depression, and global functioning. Systematic, parallel studies that compared neuroleptics without a placebo control condition also reported a broad spectrum of efficacy. Subsequent double-blind, placebo-controlled trials also suggested a broad spectrum of effi- cacy for low-dose neuroleptics in the treatment of borderline personality disorder. Acute symp- tom severity improved in cognitive-perceptual, affective, and impulsive-behavioral symptom domains, although efficacy for schizotypal symptoms, psychoticism, anger, and hostility was most consistently noted. Treatment of Patients With Borderline Personality Disorder 63 Copyright 2010, American Psychiatric Association. Many of the double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of neuroleptics in borderline personal- ity disorder are noteworthy for biases in sample selection that strongly affected outcomes.