By U. Seruk. Rivier College.
The present study suggests that aqueous extracts of leaves of Vitex trifolia Linn purchase 500 mg clarithromycin visa. High-throughput screening of herbal plants against Mycobacterium tuberculosis using microplate alamar blue assay in Myanmar best clarithromycin 500 mg. In this assay effective clarithromycin 500 mg, the anti-tuberculosis activity was detected by using the Alamar blue dye to the broth cultures with drugs in 96-well microplates. Hence, the findings in this study were the first report exhibiting antimycobacterial activity. It could also be further extended to determine the anti-tuberculous drug susceptibility and resistance of clinical mycobacterium isolates. Scientific evaluation of hypoglycemic activity was tested on adrenaline induced hyperglycemic rabbits model. After one week, Lingzhi 3g/kg body weight was administered with distilled water and the blood glucose level were again determined at 0hr, 1hr, 2hr, 3hr and 4hr after administration of Lingzhi. The results showed that blood glucose levels of adrenaline induced hyperglycemic rabbits were 350. The study indicated that the Lingzhi powder significantly lowered the blood glucose level at 2hr (p< 0. Phytochemical analysis showed that Lingzhi contained alkaloids, flavonoids, tannis and phytosterols. Hypoglycemic activity and related chemical constituents of Premna integrifolia Linn. Khin Tar Yar Myint; Thaw Zin; May Aye Than; Myint Myint Khine; Win Myint; Mu Mu Sein Myint; Mya Aye; Thandar Myint. The aim of this study is to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of Premna integrifolia Linn. Blood glucose levels of rats at various time intervals were measured by glucometer. All extracts showed blood glucose lowering effect, with leave extracts possessing hypoglycemic activity at 1hr (p<0. The most active stem bark extracts was further fractionated to chloroform-soluble and insoluble portions, and hypoglycemic activity tested. The present study was planned to observe the hypoglycemic activity of the ethanolic extract of the bark of Acacia catechu Willd. In this study, ethanolic extraction, acute toxicity test general pharmacological screening tests, test of hypoglycemic activity and phytochemical analysis of the bark of Acacia catechu were carried out. The dried powder of the bark of Acacia catechu was extracted with 90% alcohol to get ethanolic extract. In acute toxicity study, albino mice were used to determine the degree of toxicity to the administration of ethanolic extract but no toxic signs were observed at the maximal feasible dose of 16g/kg body weight. General pharmacological screening tests of ethanolic extract of the back of Acacia catechu had been done using albino mice but there was no abnormality regarding central and autonomic nervous system. Adrenaline-induced hyperglycemic albino rats were used to determine the hypoglycemic activity. The results after giving the ethanolic extract of the bark of Acacia catechu in the dose of 1. The results also showed that the hypoglycemic activity of ethanolic extract of the bark of is in dose-dependent relationship and similar to that of standard drug, glibenclamide (4mg/kg). Phytochemical analysis of ethanolic extract of the bark of revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannin, α-amino acids, glycosides, saponins, resin, phenolic compounds and carbohydrate. According to these results, it is concluded that ethanolic extract of the bark of Acacia catechu possess the significant hypoglycemic activity on adrenaline-induced hyperglycemic rat model. The purpose of present study was to evaluate scientifically the hypoglycemic activity of Murraya koenigii Spreng. In this study, aqueous extraction, acute toxicity, pharmacological screening test, phytochemical constituents and hypoglycemic effect of aqueous extract of Pyin-daw-thein were carried out. Six adrenaline-induced hyperglycemic albino rats were used to study the hypoglycemic activity. The dried powder of leaves of Pyin-daw-thein was extracted with water used to prepare aqueous extract. In acute toxicity study in mice, it was observed that aqueous extract of Pyin-daw-thein was not toxic up to the maximal feasible dose of (16g/kg) body weight. General pharmacology screening test of aqueous extract of Pyin-daw-thein had shown no abnormal changes. Phytochemical analysis of leaves of Pyin-daw-thein showed that they have alkaloid, triterpene, tannin, resin, glycoside, polyphenol, carbohydrate, amino acids and reducing sugar. In observation of aqueous extract of Pyin-daw-thein at the three different doses, aqueous extract 2g/kg and 4g/kg showed significant hypoglycemic effect at 2hr (p<0. The comparison between hypoglycemic effects of aqueous extract of Pyin-daw-thein and standard drug, glibenclamide (4mg/kg), showed that they have similar hypoglycemic effect. The purpose of present study was to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of Syzygium cumini (L.
Strong antiabortion advocates who believe embryonic life makes moral claims on us from the moment of conception will obviously object to this massive destruction of human life buy clarithromycin 500mg lowest price. However buy clarithromycin master card, this argument does seem rooted in a religious vision not shared by a majority in our society order clarithromycin 500 mg with mastercard. As a liberal, pluralistic society any moral vision that will govern our shared political life (and potentially employ justiﬁably the coercive powers of the state) must command something close to unanimous assent. But there is a variant of the excess embryo argument that does seem to meet this test. Nolan (1991) sees a moral ambiguity in our treatment of these embryos that is difﬁcult to rationally justify. Speciﬁcally, we justify germline genetic engineering as an extension of clinical medicine with “the ostensible goal of providing therapy for these ‘patients,’“ while at the same time we seem “quite comfortable with pursuing germline genetic research that would itself entail substantial destruction of embry- onic life” (Nolan, 1991, p. In no other area of clinical medicine or research medicine do we permit the destruction of failed patients. This objection can be answered by noting an ambiguity in the use of the term “patient,” as applied to the eight-cell embryo. Morally speaking, the embryo is not a patient in the same sense that an infant is a patient. What this signals is a therapeutic attitude toward that embryo, as opposed to a merely experimental attitude. If we have genet- ically engineered an embryo and implanted it, and then in the third month of ges- tation some environmental factor causes terrible damage to the fetus, then this mother has the moral right to choose abortion, especially if it is her judgment that this is in the best interests of the fetus who would otherwise face a seriously com- promised life of unmitigated suffering. By way of contrast, if this same genetically engineered embryo is born, but some serious medical disorder emerges after birth that is an unexpected consequence of the genetic engineering, then we would have a strong societal obligation to do everything medically reasonable to correct or ame- liorate that disorder. Note that we have in mind here a crippling disorder, perhaps one that would be very costly to correct or ameliorate, as opposed to a fatal disor- der where heroic medical intervention could only prolong a painful dying process. So long as this moral commitment is in place, we do not see a strong moral objec- tion to germline engineering on the grounds of embryonic destruction. Threats to Health Care Justice A ﬁfth objection we need to consider is an argument from justice. This is a complex objection that has many dimensions to it and that is very sensitive to empirical matters of a political and economic sort. That is, if this were foreclosed as a therapeutic research option by social choice, would we have violated any key moral rights that individuals have, especially future individuals afﬂicted with speciﬁc genetic disorders who could have been spared those disorders if the research had been allowed to go forward? The objector’s response to these questions is, in effect, that no one has a just claim to germline genetic engineering. That is, as many have argued, there are an indeﬁnitely large array of therapeutic medical technolo- gies that are possible; but, given limited resources for meeting medical needs in any society, only some fraction of these can be actualized and deployed (Callahan, 1990). If everyone is thereby denied access to these technologies, and if virtually everyone could potentially beneﬁt from them, then all are treated impartially and fairly. That is, it is regrettable and unfortunate that many future individuals will be afﬂicted with serious genetic disorders they could have been spared, but, morally speaking, it is not unjust. This is a line of argument we have already addressed at great length in another publication (Fleck, 1994). Brieﬂy, if we have only limited resources for meeting vir- tually unlimited health needs, then those needs must be fairly prioritized. One way of thinking about this problem is from the perspective of protecting fair equality of opportunity for all over the course of a life (as opposed to looking at this as a problem of justice at a point in time) (Daniels, 1985). We can imagine that by the year 2003 we will have developed and deployed a totally implantable artiﬁcial heart with annual costs of $52 billion ($1997) for 350,000 people per year. By the year 2010 we will imagine we have the capacity to do germline genetic engineering. Everyone today is mindful of intense political and business pressures to control health care costs. While it is generally true that no one’s moral rights are violated if a society chooses not to develop and deploy a new medical technol- ogy, in this case there is a justice-based argument that would warrant the conclusion that germline genetic resources should command societal resources before ongoing expenditures for artiﬁcial hearts. A key element of that argument is that roughly 70% of those artiﬁcial hearts would go to individuals over age 65, that is, individu- als who would have had the opportunity to lead a full life of reasonable quality. What germline genetic engineering would offer is that same opportunity to other individuals who were at the very beginning of life. Along these same lines, there is a comparable argument that might be made regarding somatic cell gene therapy. That is, like the artiﬁcial heart, somatic cell gene therapy may prove to be another very expensive “half-way” technology. This means that the intervention does not really cure the medical problem; instead, the problem is substantially ameliorated through repeated application of the technology. The need for repeated application of the technology is what adds dramatically to the social costs of the technology. If this is what happens, however, then we believe a strong case could be made, from the perspective of health care justice, for giving lower funding priority to somatic gene therapy relative to germline gene therapy.
The internal purchase 250 mg clarithromycin overnight delivery, common clarithromycin 500 mg free shipping, and external carotid arteries are clamped clarithromycin 500 mg sale, the lining of the internal carotid artery is opened, and the atherosclerotic plaque is removed. This surgery is risky: approximately 6 to 10% of patients will either die or suffer severe neurological damage as a result of a stroke during the surgery, and about 7 to 11% of the patients will die during or soon (less than one month) after having a carotid endarterectomy. Newer, less invasive procedures include angioplasty done by threading catheters through the femoral artery in the leg and up through the aorta to the carotid, then inﬂating a balloon to dilate the artery. However, it remains controversial whether angioplasty is actually safer or produces better outcomes. What is known is that carotid endarterectomies or angioplasties are of no value to patients with less than 70% blockage (as determined by an angiograph). These symptoms included short-term memory loss, vertigo, headache, ringing in the ears, lack of vigilance, and depression. These results suggest that vascular insufﬁciency, not a true degenerative process, may be the major cause of these so-called age-related cerebral disorders. Appropriate treatment involves following the recommendations in the chapter “Heart and Cardiovascular Health. Cervical Dysplasia • A Pap smear of the cervix showing abnormal (but not cancerous) cells The cervix is a small, cylindrical organ that comprises the lower part and neck of the uterus. The cervix contains a central canal (the endocervical canal) for passage of sperm and menstrual blood, and for childbirth. Both the canal and the outer surface of the cervix are lined with two types of cells: mucus-producing (glandular) cells and protective (squamous) cells. The term dysplasia refers to abnormal cells that are not cancerous but have the potential to become cancer. Cervical dysplasia is diagnosed by a Pap smear—a sampling of cells from the surface of the cervix. Before any cancer appears, abnormal changes occur in cells on the surface of the cervix. Fortunately, cervical cancer is one of the few cancers with well-deﬁned precancerous stages, so when detected early it usually can be treated quite successfully. Most laboratories in the United States use a standard set of terms, called the Bethesda System, to report Pap test results. The Bethesda System considers abnormalities of squamous cells (the thin, ﬂat cells that form the surface of the cervix) and glandular cells (mucus-producing cells found in the endocervical canal or in the lining of the uterus) separately. Glandular cell abnormalities are much less common than squamous cell abnormalities. Samples with cell abnormalities are divided into the following categories, ranging from the mildest to the most severe. The cells do not appear normal, but doctors are uncertain about what the cell changes mean. Intraepithelial refers to the layer of cells that forms the surface of the cervix. Neoplasia means an abnormal growth of cells, and the number describes how much of the thickness of the lining of the cervix contains abnormal cells—only the top layer, in this case. High-grade means that there are more evident changes in the size and shape of the abnormal (precancerous) cells and that the cells look very different from normal cells. Although they are not cancer, these abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby healthy tissue. Cervical cancer occurs when abnormal cervical squamous cells invade deeper into the cervix or to other tissues or organs. In a well-screened population, such as that in the United States, a finding of cancer on a Pap test is extremely rare. The glandular cells do not appear normal, but doctors are uncertain about what the cell changes mean. Causes Since cervical dysplasia is a precancerous lesion, the risk factors for cervical dysplasia are identical to those for cervical cancer. The time from exposure to the appearance of a genital wart or an abnormal Pap smear can range from a few weeks to decades. This suggests that the immune system is able to defend against the development of clinical infection, cervical dysplasia, and cancer. A complex interaction of defense mechanisms, including immunity, viral load, viral type, and host susceptibility, determines the natural course of the disease. The other risk factors given above are largely what determines which of these possibilities will occur. For example, smoking is a signiﬁcant risk factor for cervical cancer and cervical dysplasia: smokers have an approximately threefold increased incidence compared with nonsmokers, with one study showing the increase to be as high as 17-fold in women ages 20 to 29.