By R. Ramon. Skidmore College.
Lactase deﬁciency Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins buy flavoxate 200 mg mastercard. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care order flavoxate 200mg, 7th Edition purchase flavoxate overnight delivery. Good health is achieved by the proper during the healing process is known as balance of yin and yang. A is a large group of people who care and may be consulted even if the are members of a larger cultural group but patient is also receiving traditional care. Dieting and extensive use of exercise and group has collectively, based on the group’s exercise facilities are common practices. The idea that one’s own ideas, practices, and beliefs are superior to, or are preferred to, 7. The patient’s illness is viewed as part of break down more rapidly than normal-shaped the whole. Folk healers frequently base treatments ences in cultures and proceeds as though they on humoral pathology (curanderas). Describe how you would advise impoverished as strange are known as and may patients who are not meeting their healthcare result in psychological discomfort or needs due to the following conditions: disturbances. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. Living in overcrowded conditions; absence How my beliefs differ: of running water and adequate sanitation: Nursing actions for patient: c. Explain why the following groups of people are at high risk for living in poverty. Families headed by single women: may affect the interaction of a nurse with a patient in this situation: A nurse attempts to perform a nursing history on an Appalachian woman admitted to the hospital with chest pain. Patient refuses to answer questions and refers to her “granny” woman as a source of information. Patient’s extended family is present during the interview and answers each question before the patient has a chance to speak. How would you respond to the individual special herb prepared by her folk healer to nursing needs of the following patients? Using the Transcultural Assessment: Health- abortion earlier but is ready for this new Related Beliefs and Practices located in your baby. How do this English brings his grandfather (who speaks patient’s beliefs differ from yours? The ing actions could you take to help this patient grandfather presents with the warning express and practice his or her beliefs? Interview fellow classmates and friends repre- senting different cultures to determine how they respond to an illness in the family. Identify any risk factors Health-related beliefs: they may have for serious illness, including culturally related diseases. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. Use the following expanded scenario from Chapter 2 in your textbook to answer the questions below. Scenario: Danielle Dorvall, a 45-year-old Hait- ian woman, has been in the United States for 3. She recently had a and/or ethical/legal competencies are most surgical repair of a fractured femur and is now likely to bring about the desired outcome? Dorvall’s dressings, she asks that a Haitian folk healer from her neighborhood be allowed to come to the hospital to help heal her broken leg. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. Immunizing children against measles is an example of which of the following levels of d. Secondary when a person feels a sense of belonging to a group or community and being loved by c. In which of the following stages of acute illness Multiple Response Questions does the patient decide to accept the diagnosis and follow the prescribed treatment plan? Which of the following are stages of illness behaviors according to Suchman (1965)? Which of the following statements accurately herself as being sick, seeks validation of describe existing models of health and illness? In stage 2, most people focus on their health and illness developed by Leavell symptoms and bodily functions. When help from a healthcare provider is the agent, host, and environment react sought, the person becomes a patient and separately to create risk factors. When a patient decides to accept a diagno- health as a constantly changing state, with sis and follow a prescribed treatment plan, high-level wellness and death being on he or she is in stage 4, achieving recovery opposite ends of a graduated scale.
Basic research and applied research inform each other generic flavoxate 200mg mastercard, and advances in science occur more rapidly when both types of research are conducted purchase flavoxate visa. The results of psychological research are reported primarily in research reports in scientific journals buy flavoxate 200mg on-line. These research reports have been evaluated, critiqued, and improved by other scientists through the process of peer review. The methods used by scientists have developed over many years and provide a common framework through which information can be collected, organized, and shared. In addition to requiring that science be empirical, the scientific method demands that the procedures used be objective, or free from personal bias. Scientific findings are organized by theories, which are used to summarize and make new predictions, but theories are usually framed too broadly to be tested in a single experiment. Therefore, scientists normally use the research hypothesis as a basis for their research. Scientists use operational definitions to turn the ideas of interest—conceptual variables—into measured variables. Decisions about whether psychological research using human and animals is ethical are made using established ethical codes developed by scientific organizations and on the basis of judgments made by the local Institutional Review Board. These decisions are made through a cost-benefit analysis, in which the costs are compared to the benefits. If the potential costs of the research appear to outweigh any potential benefits that might come from it, then the research should not proceed. Descriptive research is designed to provide a snapshot of the current state of affairs. Descriptive research allows the development of questions for further study but does not assess relationships among variables. The results of descriptive research projects are analyzed using descriptive statistics. Correlational research assesses the relationships between and among two or more variables. It allows making predictions but cannot be used to draw inferences about the causal relationships between and among the variables. Linear relationships between variables are normally analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient. The goal of experimental research is to assess the causal impact of one or more experimental manipulations on a dependent variable. Because experimental research creates initial equivalence among the participants in the different experimental conditions, it allows drawing conclusions Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. Experimental designs are not always possible because many important variables cannot be experimentally manipulated. Because all research has the potential for invalidity, research never “proves‖ a theory or hypothesis. Threats to construct validity involve potential inaccuracies in the measurement of the conceptual variables. Threats to statistical conclusion validity involve potential inaccuracies in the statistical testing of the relationships among variables. Threats to internal validity involve potential inaccuracies in assumptions about the causal role of the independent variable on the dependent variable. Threats to external validity involve potential inaccuracy regarding the generality of observed findings. Informed consumers of research are aware of the strengths of research but are also aware of its potential limitations. Chapter 3 Brains, Bodies, and Behavior Did a Neurological Disorder Cause a Musician to Compose Boléro and an Artist to Paint It 66 Years Later? In 1986 Anne Adams was working as a cell biologist at the University of Toronto in Ontario, Canada. She took a leave of absence from her work to care for a sick child, and while she was away, she completely changed her interests, dropping biology entirely and turning her attention to art. In 1994 she completed her painting Unravelling Boléro, a translation of Maurice Ravel‘s famous orchestral piece onto canvas. Each bar of music is represented by a lacy vertical figure, with the height representing volume, the shape representing note quality, and the color representing the music‘s pitch. Shortly after finishing the painting, Adams began to experience behavioral problems, including increased difficulty speaking. Neuroimages of Adams‘s brain taken during this time show that regions in the front part of her brain, which are normally associated with language processing, had begun to deteriorate, while at the same time, regions of the brain responsible for the integration of information from the five senses were unusually well developed (Seeley et al.
Each nephron contains a series of the parts needed to do the kidney’s filtering job cheap flavoxate 200mg on-line. Afferent arteriole → Glomerulus → Proximal convoluted tubule → Loop of Henle → Distal convoluted tubule → Collecting tubule purchase discount flavoxate on-line. In short cheap 200mg flavoxate visa, blood comes through the artery (arteriole) and material gloms onto the nephron before twisting through the near (proximal) tubes, loop- ing the loop, twisting through the distant (distal) tubes, and collecting itself at the other end. Those brush borders provide extra surface area for reabsorption, so it makes sense that they congregate in the first area after filtration. The glomerulus is a collection of capillaries with big pores, so think of it as the initial filtering sieve. These tubules have the most surface area with all those villi brush borders, so they reabsorb the most. The internal sphincter is smooth muscle tissue that prevents urine leakage from the bladder. We go with the guys first because — let’s face it — their biological role in reproduction isn’t as involved as women’s. Then we explain reproduction on the female side of the equation, including a review of the human life cycle from birth to death. But to survive as a species, Ia number of individuals must produce and nurture a next generation, carrying their uniqueness forward in the genetic pool. In this chapter, you get an overview of the parts and functions of the male reproductive system, along with plenty of practice questions to test your knowledge. At birth, the apex of the penis is enclosed in a fold of skin called the prepuce, or foreskin, which often is removed during a surgery called circumcision. Ureter Peritoneum Urinary bladder Seminal vesicle Ductus deferens Rectum Pubis Ejaculatory duct Prostatic urethra Prostate gland Urogenital diaphragm Membranus urethra Bulbourethral gland Corpus cavernosum Bulb of penis Corpus spongiosum Anus Figure 13-1: Cavernous urethra Epididymis The male Glans penis Testis Prepuce reproduc- Scrotum External urethral orifice tive system. The left side of the scrotum tends to hang lower than the right side to accommodate a longer spermatic cord, which we explain later in this section. There are two scrotal layers: the integument, or outer skin layer, and the dartos tunic, an inner smooth muscle layer that contracts when cold and elongates when warm. That has to do with the two testes (the singular is testis) inside (see Figure 13-2). These small ovoid glands, also referred to as testicles, need to be a bit cooler than body temperature in order to produce viable sperm for reproduction. When the dartos tunic becomes cold, such as when a man is swimming, it contracts and draws the testes toward the body for warmth. When the dartos tunic becomes overly warm, it slackens to allow the testes to hang farther away from the heat of the body. Spermatic cord Blood vessels and nerves Head of epididymis Seminiferous Efferent ductule tubule Ductus deferens Lobule Rete testis Tubulus rectus Septum Tunica Body of albuginea epididymis Figure 13-2: Testis. A fibrous capsule called the tunica albuginea encases each testis and extends into the gland forming incomplete septa (partitions), which divide the testis into about 200 lobules. These compartments contain small, coiled seminiferous tubules where sperm are produced by spermatogenesis, or meiosis, which we review in the next section. Distributed in gaps between the tubules are interstitial cells called Leydig cells that produce the male sex hormone testosterone. The tubules of each lobule come together in an area called the mediastinum testis and straighten into tubuli recti before forming a network called the rete testis that leads to the efferent ducts (also called ductules). These ducts carry sperm to an extremely long (about 20 feet), tightly coiled tube called the epididymis for storage. The epididymis merges with the ductus deferens, or vas deferens, which carries sperm up into the spermatic cord, which also encases the testicular artery and vein, lymphatic vessels, and nerves. Convoluted pouches called seminal vesicles lie behind the base of the bladder and secrete an alkaline fluid containing fructose, vitamins, amino acids, and prostaglandins to nourish sperm as it enters the ejaculatory duct. This gland secretes a thin, opalescent substance that precedes the sperm in an ejaculation. The alkaline nature of this substance reduces the natural acidity of the female’s vagina to prepare it to receive the sperm. Two yellowish pea-sized bodies called Cowper’s glands, or bulbourethral glands, lie on either side of the urethra and secrete a clear alkaline lubricant prior to ejaculation; it neutralizes the acidity of the urethra and acts as a lubricant for the penis. Once all the glands have added protective and nourishing fluids to the 400 to 500 million departing sperm, the mixture is known as seminal fluid or semen. During sexual arousal, two columns of spongy erectile tissue in the penis — the corpus spongiosum penis and the corpus cavernosum penis — swell with blood to make it rigid and capable of entering the female’s vagina. At the time of ejaculation, smooth muscles in the wall of the epididymis force sperm through the ductus deferens, located in the inguinal canal, toward the urinary bladder. After mixing with the secretions from the seminal vesicles and the prostate gland, the semen travels along the urethra and out a vertical slit in the glans penis, or head of the penis. See how familiar you are with the male anatomy by tackling these practice questions: 1.
A personality disorder is a long-lasting but frequently less severe disorder characterized by inflexible patterns of thinking buy flavoxate 200mg, feeling buy flavoxate 200 mg otc, or relating to others that causes problems in personal best buy for flavoxate, social, and work situations. They are characterized by odd or eccentric behavior, by dramatic or erratic behavior, or by anxious or inhibited behavior. Somatization disorder is a psychological disorder in which a person experiences numerous long- lasting but seemingly unrelated physical ailments that have no identifiable physical cause. Patients with factitious disorder fake physical symptoms in large part because they enjoy the attention and treatment that they receive in the hospital. Sexual disorders refer to a variety of problems revolving around performing or enjoying sex. Sexual dysfunctions include problems relating to loss of sexual desire, sexual response or orgasm, and pain during sex. Chapter 13 Treating Psychological Disorders Therapy on Four Legs Lucien Masson, a 60-year-old Vietnam veteran from Arizona, put it simply: ―Sascha is the best medicine I‘ve ever had. Lucien has tried many solutions, consulting with doctors, psychiatrists, and psychologists, and using a combination of drugs, group therapy, and anger-management classes. If a stranger gets too close to Lucien in public, Sascha will block the stranger with his body. Sascha is trained to sense when Lucien is about to have a nightmare, waking him before it starts. Before road rage can set in, Sascha gently whimpers, reminding his owner that it doesn‘t pay to get upset about nutty drivers. Sometimes I’ll scratch my hand until it’s raw and won’t realize until she comes up to me and brings me out. The dogs are trained to perform specific behaviors that are helpful to their owners. If the dog‘s owner is depressed, the dog will snuggle up and offer physical comfort; if the owner is having a panic attack, the owner can calm himself by massaging the dog‘s body. Service dogs are constant, loving companions who provide emotional support and companionship to their embattled, often isolated owners (Shim, 2008; Lorber, 2010; Alaimo, 2010; Schwartz,  2008). Despite the reports of success from many users, it is important to keep in mind that the utility of psychiatric service dogs has not yet been tested, and thus would never be offered as a therapy by a trained clinician or paid for by an insurance company. Psychological disorders create a tremendous individual, social, and economic drain on society. Disorders make it difficult for people to engage in productive lives and effectively contribute to their family and to society. Disorders lead to disability and absenteeism in the workplace, as well as physical problems, premature death, and suicide. It has been estimated that the annual financial burden of each case of anxiety disorder is over $3,000 per year, meaning that the annual cost of anxiety disorders alone in the United States runs into the trillions of dollars (Konnopka, Leichsenring, Leibing, & König, 2009; Smit et al. The goal of this chapter is to review the techniques that are used to treat psychological disorder. Just as psychologists consider the causes of disorder in terms of the bio-psycho-social model of illness, treatment is also based on psychological, biological, and social approaches. The social approach to reducing disorder focuses on changing the social environment in which individuals live to reduce the underlying causes of disorder. These approaches include group, couples, and family therapy, as well as community outreach programs. The community approach is likely to be the most effective of the three approaches because it focuses not only on treatment,  but also on prevention of disorders (World Health Organization, 2004). A clinician may focus on any or all of the three approaches to treatment, but in making a decision about which to use, he or she will always rely on his or her knowledge about existing empirical tests of the effectiveness of different treatments. These tests, known as outcome studies, carefully compare people who receive a given treatment with people who do not receive a treatment, or with people who receive a different type of treatment. Taken together, these studies have confirmed that many types of therapies are effective in treating disorder. Cost-of-illness studies and cost-effectiveness analyses in anxiety disorders: A systematic review. Costs of nine common mental disorders: Implications for curative and preventive psychiatry. Prevention of mental disorders: Effective interventions and policy options: Summary report. Outline and differentiate the psychodynamic, humanistic, behavioral, and cognitive approaches to psychotherapy. Treatment for psychological disorder begins when the individual who is experiencing distress visits a counselor or therapist, perhaps in a church, a community center, a hospital, or a private practice. The therapist will begin by systematically learning about the patient‘s needs through a formalpsychological assessment, which is an evaluation of the patient’s psychological and mental health. In some cases of psychological disorder—and particularly for sexual problems—medical treatment is the preferred course of action. For instance, men who are experiencing erectile dysfunction disorder may need surgery to increase blood flow or local injections of muscle relaxants.