Acarbose

By N. Sanford. Berea College.

Primary audience: Neurosurgeons discount acarbose 25 mg visa, neurologists buy cheap acarbose 50mg online, neuroradiologists purchase acarbose 50 mg online, neuropathologists, neurosurgery and neurology residents. Scholarly Activities and Research During Rotation Research within the Division of Neuropathology is an option that residents may choose for research elective activities. Incorporation of residents into experimental neuropathological work ongoing in the Division or selection of projects in clinically related research, e. Residents will be evaluated on their demonstrated ability to provide useful consultation to the clinical service teams, medical knowledge, application of this knowledge to efficient/quality patient care, and gross and microscopic diagnostic, technical and observational skills. Residents are also evaluated on their interpersonal skills, professional attitudes, reliability, and ethics with members of the teaching faculty, peers, laboratory staff, and clinicians. They are further evaluated on their initiative in fostering quality patient care and use of the medical literature, as it relates to their assigned cases. Their timely completion of assigned interpretive reports is another component of the evaluation. Chapters 27-28, Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of th Disease, 7 Edition, Elsevier Saunders, Philadelphia, 2005. Surgical Pathology of the Nervous System and its Coverings, th 4 ed, Churchill Livingstone, New York, 2002. Diagnostic Pathology of Nervous System Tumours, Churchill Livingstone, London, 2002. Tumors of the Peripheral Nervous System, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, D. Tumors of the Pituitary Gland, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, D. Practice Guidelines for Autopsy Pathology: Autopsy Procedures for Brain, Spinal Cord, and Neuromuscular System, Arch Pathol Lab Med 119:777–783, 1995. Residents must obtain permission from the appropriate faculty member prior to scheduling the elective. Residents must obtain permission from the appropriate faculty member prior to signing up for the elective. A one month rotation can be designed to teach research skills and allow a resident time to begin a clinically related research project that will be carried forward during the rest of the training program. A goal of the rotation is to encourage pathology residents to participate in a research project that will result in formal presentation at national meetings and publication in peer-reviewed journals. Research rotations must have a focused research project and must follow the below described process for formalizing the rotation. A longer period of research training is available as elective time for those who wish to pursue an academic career. Procedure: Listed below are the required procedures for the Research Rotation • The academic year prior to scheduling a research rotation, the resident should identify a faculty sponsor, have the faculty member sign the attached form stating that they will agree to be the mentor and agree to be responsible for the research activity during the scheduled month. The faculty sponsor must submit the progress report along with the standard evaluation of the resident to the resident education committee. He continued to improve his fund of knowledge and diagnostic skills and received positive comments on performance evaluations. Overall, his performance during the last six months of his residency was very good. He interacted very well with faculty, fellow residents and staff, and was an active mentor to junior residents. His excellent background in research allowed him to continue to be actively involved in scholarly activity including publication of five manuscripts and presentation of abstracts at five national or local meetings. Was physician subject to any disciplinary action, such as imposition of consultation requirements, suspension, or termination or probation? This Committee should consist of representative Teaching Faculty and chaired by the Program Director. From this review, an Annual Program Improvement Action Plan (last section of this form) is to be developed to improve deficit areas. All these items should be reviewed and the corresponding box checked next to the item. As a way of documenting this annually, please have all institutional site directors sign this report as well. I have discussed this report as it pertains to each Participating Institution with each Participating Institutional Site Director. Today Internet resources may not readily provide information on who is responsible for the content, and where that person or organization may be. For example, a site may provide an organization name, but have no indication of where that organization is geographically. Authors can spend hours searching for this information to include it in brackets, or choose the allowable [publisher unknown], [place unknown], etc. Perhaps it is time to rethink the necessary information to identify a cited work today, and to better standardize citations across diferent media and publication types.

Statistics from the Department of Health of the United Kingdom show that emergency consultations have increased at an annual rate of 6% since 1994 order 50 mg acarbose with visa. In a scenario with limited resources purchase acarbose 25mg without a prescription, faster attention to emergencies leads to delays in attending the remaining patients buy acarbose 25mg otc. Another compounding problem is that emergency departments suffer from a shortage of quali¿ed staff, so that the number of units staffed by physicians has slowly decreased. In June 2006, after 3 years of investiga- tion, a commission designated by the United States Institute of Medicine presented its conclusions about the future of medical emergencies [5–7]. Their principal recommenda- tions can be summarised in four points: (1) integrate the different stages in patient care; (2) institute proper channelling; (3) guarantee best practice according to current knowledge; (4) evaluate the results of the system. To explain these dispro- portionate health care costs [10], numerous arguments have been put forth: inef¿ciency, excessive administrative costs, poor administration, inadequate care (with an enormous increase in costs due to medical error), waste of resources, and fraud. In the analysis of avoidable expenditures, apart from the need to develop a more ef¿cient system with lower administrative costs, one point that stands out is the need to reduce medical error. The specialist must be physically near the patient not only to perform medical acts and procedures but also to monitor the patient’s evolution, deal with monitor alarms, access the clinical history, see the medical images and ¿nally make the appropriate decisions. Whereas a physician must be physically present to perform procedures such as placing a central venous line or intubating a patient, there is no reason the rest of the physician’s responsibilities cannot be ful¿lled from a remote location. Moreover, considering that the level of skills and training necessary for these two types of tasks are clearly different, there is no reason the same person should be in charge of carrying out both kinds of tasks. Intelligent aggregating (using automatic processes and intelligent alarms) could alert the specialist to potentially dangerous changes in the patient’s status, even when less experienced staff would not be able to detect a problem. In addition to the direct advantages discussed above, telemedicine can bring indirect bene¿ts to this scenario. The most re¿ned telemedicine systems should integrate information from the hospital information system, including data from monitoring devices. Acquiring and standardising these signals would dramatically increase the semantic value of medical registers. However, much training involves acquiring theoretical knowledge that makes up most of the curriculum, and this objective can be accomplished equally through either traditional or e-learning arrangements. Given the potential consequences of medical errors, health care professionals receive extensive training and are expected to maintain errors to a minimum. Case-based learning systems (medical residency programmes, for example) yield the best results. However, these systems are labour intensive and consume enormous amounts of resources and time. Computer simulations can replicate the intellectual pro- cesses involved in case-based learning. E-learning comprises many different strategies with very different levels of technologi- cal development. At one end of the spectrum, e-learning is nothing more than the delivery of electronic documents for of¿ce applications (text ¿les, electronic forms, slide presenta- tions). In this approach, computers merely change the way contents reach students; the characteristics of the learning process remain unchanged. At the other end of the spectrum, sophisticated simulation systems allow the rules of the process to be changed, facilitating case-based learning. Unfortunately, in most simulation systems, the number of cases that can be introduced is limited during the programming stage. The system would make it possible to save interesting cases and to construct a teaching library. Cases in the library might include information about the problem and the solutions tested to enable posterior analysis of the actions undertaken and the effects brought about by dif- ferent manoeuvres or changes. Thus, rather than simulations, this approach would enable learning based on real cases as well as on the mistakes made. Telemedicine systems handle sensitive data that must operate on channels that can guarantee security and privacy of the information. In any system for the practice of telemedicine, the value of the information transmitted depends on its quality, representa- tion and reliability. In these critical systems, all data with questionable quality, representa- tion or reliability are worse than worthless because they could lead to medical errors and consequent risks. Communications among different systems can be ensured through standards for data storage and communication. Not only will this change the way medical knowledge is applied, it will also change the way that knowledge itself is pro- duced. Applying data-mining techniques to large databases of medical signals can generate huge amounts of information and lead to a new strategy for formulating hypotheses to be tested with the scienti¿c method. It is even reasonable to expect that these analyses might reveal systematic alterations in one or more signals before the onset of an event [15]. Kaiser Family Foundation (2004) The Uninsured: A primer, key facts about Americans without health insurance. Health Care Financ Rev 5:81–86 29 Telemedicine to Improve Care in the Critically Ill 347 12. Murias G, Sales B, García-Esquirol O, Blanch L (2010) Telemedicine: Improving the quality of care for critical patients from the pre-hospital phase to the intensive care unit.

discount acarbose 50mg line

The spumavirus subgroup buy genuine acarbose, although causing marked foamy cytopathic effect in vitro 25 mg acarbose fast delivery, have not yet been clearly associated with any disease order acarbose online pills. Lentiviruses were initially iso- lated in the 1960s when it was found that certain slowly evolving, degenerative dis- eases in sheep were communicable. Interestingly, unlike the oncogenic retroviruses, the lentiviruses did not form tumors but were cytopathic (caused cells death). Members of the lentivirus family include Visna virus, Simian immunodeficiency virus, human immunodeficiency virus 1 and 2, caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus, and equine infectious anemia virus. At the ends of the genome are two identical genetic regions similar to those found in all retroviruses. They are composed of a lipid bilayer membrane surrounding a conical nucleocap- sid. These three groups of pro- teins are encoded by the gag, pol, and env genes, respectively. The gag gene refers to the group antigen and produces the viral core proteins that have antigens cross- reacting with other antigens within large retrovirus groups. The Gag proteins are all produced as a large single polyprotein that is then cleaved into individual proteins by a virus-encoded protease (p24, p18, and p15). In addition to the structural elements necessary to assemble the virus particle, the virus genome codes for several nonstructural proteins that play vital roles in the regulation of the viral life cycle. The Tat protein, which is encoded by the tat gene, is a strong transactivator of viral gene expression. The structural proteins include the viral envelope protein (gp 120, gp 41) which is encoded by the env gene and the core proteins (p6, p9, p17, and p24) which are encoded by the gag gene. The viral-associated regulatory proteins are encoded by the tat, rev, and nef genes, respectively. The third class of viral proteins are the maturation proteins that are encoded by the vif, vpr, and vpu genes. Expression of Vpr alone was sufficient to cause arrest of the cell cycle at the G2/M transition phase of the cell cycle. Fusin is an integral membrane glycoprotein and a member of the chemokine receptor family. The provirus can replicate immediately or remain latent for extended periods of time and in so doing is passed along to all progeny cells derived from the original infected cell. Although the mechanism of proviral activation is unclear, once the provirus is activated the intermediate stage of viral infection begins. The assembled particles are transported to the cell membrane where the mature virus particles bud off from the plasma membrane. It appears as though the virus is capable of replication, but it does not appear to have any obvious cytopathic effects as in T lymphocytes. Macrophages that contain replicating virus may not be destroyed, but evidence suggests that they become dysfunctional. It is further possible that combinations of the aforementioned approaches may be used simultaneously to inhibit multiple stages of the viral life cycle or in combination with other approaches, such as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or vaccination. By definition, such mutants not only lack intrinsic wild-type activity but also inhibit the function of their cognate wild-type protein in trans. A potential drawback in the use of transdominant viral proteins is their possi- ble immunogenicity when expressed by the transduced cells. The protected cells may consequently induce an immune response that might result in their own destruc- tion. This may diminish the efficacy of antiviral gene therapy using transdominant proteins. This sequence functions as a signal to direct the Rev protein to the nucleolar region of the nucleus of an infected cell. Single-Chain Antibodies (Intrabodies) One of the more novel classes of antimicrobial gene therapies involves the devel- opment of intracellularly expressed single-chain antibodies (also called intra- bodies). The single-chain variable fragment of an antibody is the smallest structural domain that retains the complete antigen specificity and binding site capabilities of the parental antibody. Single-chain antibodies are generated by cloning of the heavy- and light-chain genes from a hybridoma that expresses antibody to a spe- cific protein target. The BiP protein binds incompletely folded immunoglobulins and may facilitate the folding and/or oligomerization of these proteins. This hybrid molecule blocked secretion of gp120 and cell surface expression of gp120/41, when expressed intracellularly (Fig. It has recently been demonstrated that the Rev protein interacts specifically with cellular factors in order to perform its normal function in the infected cell.

Pharmacological treatment of congestive heart failure in Canada: a description of care in fve provinces trusted 25 mg acarbose. Journal article with organization as author order acarbose australia, with subsidiary part of the organization included 6 purchase acarbose 50 mg without prescription. Journal article with multiple organizations as author, with subsidiary part of the organization included 8. Journal article with a personal author and more than one organization as author 11. Journal article authors with compound last names (give as found in the article) 14. Journal article author names with particles, prepostitions, prefxes (give as found in the article) 15. If you abbreviate a word in one reference, abbreviate the same word in all references. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Moskva becomes Moscow Wien becomes Vienna Italia becomes Italy Espana becomes Spain Journals 17 Examples for Author Affiliation 17. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. When a translation of an article title is provided, place it in square brackets, with a closing period outside the right bracket. Metodo para el estudio de la funcion pulmonar en los laringectomizados [Method for the study of pulmonary function in laryngectomized patients]. Place the title in square brackets, with a closing period outside the right bracket. Article titles containing a Greek letter, chemical formula, or another special character. Infuence of seed extract of Syzygium Cumini (Jamun) on mice exposed to diferent doses of γ-radiation. Infuence of seed extract of Syzygium Cumini (Jamun) on mice exposed to diferent doses of gamma-radiation. In this circumstance, create a title from the frst few words of the text and place it in square brackets. Journal article in a language other than English with optional original language title included 20. Journal article title with special characters Article Type for Journal Articles (optional) General Rules for Article Type • An article type alerts the user that the reference is to an abstract of an article or a letter to the editor, not a full article. Increased cardiac Connexin45 results in uncoupling and spontaneous ventricular arrhythmias in mice [abstract]. When a translation of a journal article title is used as the title, place it in square brackets. Place (letter) or (abstract) within the square brackets and end title information with a period. Etude de la permeabilite nasale dans les fentes unilaterales operees [Study of nasal permeability in patients with operated unilateral clefs] [letter]. Journal article with type of article indicated Journal Title for Journal Articles (required) General Rules for Journal Title • Enter a journal title in the original language • Cite the journal name that was used at the time of publication. A list of the abbreviations for common English words used in journal titles is in Appendix A. Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention becomes Inj Prev. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics becomes Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod • Some bibliographies and online databases show a place of publication afer a journal title, such as Clin Toxicol (Phila). Tis practice is used to show that two or more journal titles with the same name reside in a library collection or database; the name of the city where the journal is published distinguishes the titles. Te city is usually shown in abbreviated format following the same rules used for words in journal titles, as Phila for Philadelphia in the example above. If you use a bibliography or database such as PubMed to verify your reference and a place name is included, you may keep it if you wish. If you do, abbreviate the title according to the Abbreviation rules for journal titles and indicate the language of the article afer the location (pagination). Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. See Appendix A for a list of commonly abbreviated English words in journal titles. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Example: ĉ or ç becomes c ⚬ Separate the edition from the title proper by a space and place it in parentheses ⚬ End all journal title information with a period placed outside the closing parenthesis Example: Pharmakeutikon Deltion. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications.

purchase generic acarbose online

The cuboidal epi- smears reveal enlarged hepatocytes that contain thelial cells are associated with spindle-shaped cells round discount 25 mg acarbose overnight delivery, cytoplasmic vacuoles (Color 10 generic acarbose 50 mg mastercard. The back- of the fibrous stroma cheap 50 mg acarbose visa, and the background may con- ground material also contains these round vacuoles tain a heavy, eosinophilic substance. Primary neoplasm of the liver reveals hepatocytes showing features of malignant neoplasia. Affected cells are usually pleomorphic with deep, cytoplasmic basophilia and immature-appearing nuclei (eg, Products Mentioned in the Text a. Ectopic cells that show features of malignant neoplasia may also be found and are indicative of a metastatic lesion in the liver. A scraping of the depig- zoa with eosinophilic nuclei, flagella, undu- marked dyspnea at rest and abdominal en- mented area was made. An abdomino- was characterized by low cellularity with indicates severe trichomoniasis. The fluid was pale an occasional squamous epithelial cell and yellow and slightly cloudy. Fluid was prepared by a large, ribbon-like bacteria associated with A six-week-old Military Macaw chick was cytospin preparation and the smear was presented with a history of inadequate the squamous cells is Alysiella filiformis. The A hand-raised crow was presented with a sample was poorly cellular and contained a Color 10. The physical slight to moderate amount of background Shown are a cluster of reactive mesothelial examination revealed caseous material in debris. Bacteria represented by a variety of cells, macrophages, erythrocytes and one the oral cavity. A scraping of the material morphologic types were seen in the back- heterophil from the mynah bird described in the oral cavity was made, and the smear ground. A crop aspirate rect smear was made of the fluid and with a healed, malaligned fracture of the was performed for cytologic examination stained with Diff-Quik stain. Examination of the and a smear was stained with Wright’s peared thick, red, slightly greasy and con- oral cavity revealed multiple, raised, white stain. A scrap- immersion field showing a uniform popula- demonstrates numerous foaming macro- ing of the lesion was made, and the smear tion of bacterial rods and yeasts beginning phages, erythrocytes and blue amorphous was stained with Wright’s stain. A cytodiagnosis of peracute septic mixed cell or macrophagic inflammation bacteria and degenerate heterophils, sug- ingluvitis and candidiasis was made, and associated with amorphous material is gesting a severe septic inflammation. There was no aspirate of the ingluvies was stained with in a lung imprint stained with Wright’s history of egg laying. A crop aspirate was taken keet was presented with a history of sinus and a smear was stained with Wright’s Color 10. Narrowly based budding yeast and A second area of the preparation from the and the smear was stained with Diff-Quik hyphae formation are seen, indicative of budgerigar in Color 10. A 723 g adult Barred Owl was presented in tein content, most likely representing in- Note the numerous epithelial cells with fea- an emaciated, weak condition. Physical ex- flammatory proteins associated with a sin- tures of malignant neoplasia. A scraping of the oral le- seen, a bacterial or chlamydial etiology is sions was made, and the smear was stained suspected. The smear shows nu- A ten-year-old female cockatiel was pre- merous pale and dark-staining piriform Color 10. An abdominocentesis was necropsy was a tan discoloration on the amount of background debris, free nuclei performed and a direct smear of the fluid and bacteria. A few erythrocytes are pre- caudolateral margin of the left lung repre- was made and stained with Diff-Quik stain. An im- all-seed diet was presented because it no formed and the smear was stained with print of the enlarged spleen was made, and longer growled, a typical behavior when Diff-Quik stain. A marked number of plasma cells collected, and a smear was prepared by a erythrocytes, and needle-like crystals. The was noted in the splenic imprint (see Color cytospin preparation and stained with Diff- cytology is compatible with articular gout. A highly cellular sample con- contains small, intracytoplasmic inclu- taining numerous erythrocytes is illus- Color 10. There are multinucleated giant cells An imprint of a normal spleen from a King Penguin that was euthanatized because of Color 10. Note the pre- Chlamydial inclusions stained with Gime- dominance of small-to-medium, mature nez stain. Physical examination re- tiel was presented for marked lethargy and cells, indicative of reactive lymphoid tissue. Multinucleated giant body radiographs revealed a large mass in was performed and the smear was stained cells and macrophages (arrow) on a heavy the area of the kidneys, and a presumptive with Diff-Quik stain. At appearance of the hepatocyte, which was the owner’s request, the bird was euthana- enlarged and contained numerous vacu- Color 10. The background contained round, fat Multinucleated giant cells and cholesterol crystals (arrow) from the bird described in invasive mass that appeared to involve droplets.

Society Finches may foster chicks of many aviculturists believe that hand-raised chicks any age discount acarbose 25mg with mastercard. Fostering may spread disease generic acarbose 50 mg free shipping, and the are better adapted to captivity and will breed sooner medical histories of both sets of parents should be than chicks raised by other means discount acarbose 50 mg free shipping. Captive parents do not always provide Aviculturists may hand-raise birds for the following optimal care and may traumatize, fail to feed, im- reasons: properly feed or abandon chicks, especially if there To produce a tame bird that will socialize with people. To prevent or reduce the transmission of diseases from the parents to the neonate. The disadvantages of hand-raising include the inten- sive labor required to feed birds and the threat of disease outbreaks that can occur when multiple nest- lings from different pairs are concentrated in a nurs- ery. Often the older and more vigorous Nestling birds are most likely to have medical prob- chicks will compete most efficiently for food and pa- lems during the first week of life, at fledging and at rental attention, causing younger chicks to be ne- weaning. Semi-do- mesticated species such as budgerigars, cockatiels, Environmental Problems finches and lovebirds may tolerate repeated evalu- Nestlings in a hot, cold or damp nest box may be ation and handling of their offspring. Larger psittac- stressed, fail to beg for food or be abandoned (Figure ine birds are usually protective of the nest box, and 30. Improper nest material may be ingested or the aviculturist should establish a routine of examin- inhaled or may support the growth of bacteria and ing the nest box daily to condition the birds to this fungi. Nest boxes should be constructed with a sume nestlings or disturb the parents and prevent small door that can be used for viewing the chicks regular feedings. Injuries Chicks receiving adequate parental care will have Nestlings may be injured by their parents, other food in their crops and yellowish-pink skin (Color nestlings or improper nest box construction (eg, ex- 30. Chicks that have empty crops, act listless and posed nails, slippery nest material). Poor nutrition are cool to the touch are receiving inadequate care can cause metabolic bone disease and make the and should receive immediate attention. Many of the chicks may be hypothermic, hypoglycemic, dehy- larger psittacines are territorial and may traumatize drated or have bacterial or yeast infections. To prevent lution to many of the problems associated with par- these injuries, the nest box can be equipped with a ent-raised neonates is to remove them for sliding door over the entrance hole to exclude the hand-raising. Care of the critically ill neonate is parents from the nest box while chicks are being described in the section on hand-raising. Chicks may also traumatize each other, most frequently injuring the beak, face and wing tips. Parental Problems Parenting is a learned process and captive birds do Infectious Diseases not always make ideal parents, especially with the Microbial infections (gram-negative bacteria, first few clutches. Parents may eat, traumatize or chlamydia, viruses and yeast) and internal parasites abandon the eggs or the chicks. Some parents never (eg, giardia and trichomoniasis) are frequent causes learn to provide adequate care; others may learn to of mortality in nestling birds (Figure 30. Most psit- tacine birds lay eggs every two to three days and start incubation when the first egg is laid. Highly pro- ductive species such as cockatiels may lay an additional clutch before fledging chicks from the previous lay. These adults may remove the feath- ers from the chicks in an attempt to encourage them to leave the nest. Any factor that decreases the for food, or if the nest box is cold, hot, damp or infested with vermin. Chicks that are being raised by the parents should be observed daily, if the parents will allow it, to ensure they vigor of the chicks (disease, cold, are receiving proper care. Neonatal mortalities may indicate disease or management-re- lated problems within the collection that can be identified by postmortem examination. If cockroaches enter the nest box and die from the insecticide, they may be eaten by either the parents or nestlings and sub- sequently transmit Sarcocystis sp. These deaths may indicate underlying bacterial Husbandry and Preventive Medicine or viral infections in the flock. Note the egg tooth and membrane covering the ear in this 28-day-old Moluccan Cockatoo embryo. Psittacine chicks are altricial, and as neonates they are unable to thermoregulate, unable to feed them- matic carriers) and contaminated food, water or nest selves and have a poorly developed immune system. Ill nestlings should be pulled for hand-feed- Consequently, diet and environmental conditions ing and appropriate treatment. When faced with be raised separately from other neonates and should a neonatal health problem, it is essential for the not be fed by the same person who cares for the other clinician to carefully evaluate the environmental birds in the nursery. If this is not possible, some conditions, hygiene practices and feeding methods in microbial infections can be treated by offering medi- the nursery. Books are available on hand-feeding cated food to the parents who will then feed it to the practices and it is beyond the scope of this chapter to nestlings.

cheap 50 mg acarbose otc

Due to the differents in vernacular name and similarity in the common features and the medicinal value best 50 mg acarbose. The morphology of these 10 plants specimens from various parts was carefully studied buy generic acarbose 50mg on line. Comparative study on effect of Myanmar traditional medicine paste and wax-bath physiotherapy in treatment of osteoarthritis knee in female patients 25 mg acarbose for sale. Female osteoarthritis cases are common clinical problem in Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, treated by several conservative methods with varying degree of effectiveness. Topical therapy has the obvious advantages of being simple to apply, non-invasive and self-administer by the patient. Among topical medicine, Myanmar traditional medicine paste (Ahtoo-lane-hsay) is a commonly used traditional medicine for arthritis in Myanmar Traditional Medicine Hospital since 1976. Although it is said to be effective in osteoarthritis, there has been no scientific study as yet. To determine the effectiveness of Myanmar Traditional Medicine Paste in treatment of osteoarthritis knee; in female patients. A prospective hospital based randomized controlled clinical study was carried out in (110) female osteoarthritis patients who attended the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department, No. Pain, range of movement, muscle power, stiffness and knee functional capacity and quality of life were assessed by appropriate scoring methods in both groups initially and then periodically reassessed up to 3 months. Cinoared to the baseline, both groups showed significant improvement in all measurements, more obvious in first 4 weeks. Myanmar Traditional Medicine paste (Ahtoo-lane-hsay) has significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect in osteoarthritis knee cases. It can be recommended as an effective, safe, and easy to administer inexpensive alternative therapy for osteoarthritis knee effects of long term analgesic therapy. Comparative study on quantitative determination of eugenol in the essential oil of Piper betle Linn. The physical properties such as moisture, total nitrogen content, total alcohol soluble matter, total water soluble matter and microchemical tests on alcohol and water soluble matters were determined. The yield percent were determined depending on the method and quality of betel leaf. The physicochemical characteristics were determined by standard methods of analysis for vegetable oil and fats. The elemental contents of betel leaf were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The betel leaf decoction was prepared according to the procedures usually used by traditional practitioners. The type of sugars, the amount of free reducing sugars and the amount of minerals of the betel leaf decoction were determined. The comparison between the betel leaf decoction and the oral rehydration salt solution was also determined. The present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-plaque properties of Ixora coccinea Linn. The present study was performed on sixty young subjects with chronic gingivitis at the Institute of Nursing, Yangon. All subjects were randomly divided into two equal groups with equal sex distribution. Clinical examination and recording of the scores was obtained weekly up to one month. Mean scores of gingival inflammation, bleeding on probing and plaque accumulation were significantly reduced in both groups. Cultural beliefs and traditional medicine utilization in Myanmar: A model assessment. Thaw Zin; Sein Win; Khin Chit; Tin Mg Lay; Kyi Kyi; Moe Moe Aye; Myint Thuzar Thant; Mya Mya Moe. Four cultural models are recognized, cultural deficit, cultural conflict, mainstream conformity and cultural distrust models, to exist in a population having different behaviour towards available health care services. To understand the influence of cultural characteristics on traditional medicine utilization, 2 areas; Yangon Division having the least culture beliefs’ influence, and Southern Shan state having diverse ethnic minorities, different culture beliefs and healing practices were compared. However, the majourity of minor ailments encountered were successfully taken care of with available health care facilities, whether it is allopathic or traditional. The main influencing model was the mainstream conformity model where deep-rooted beliefs in indigenous practices existed, followed by cultural deficit model where lack of knowledge on a health care system and medicine (21. Proper health education, exchange of knowledge between different cultures and involvement of ethnic minorities as health providers within the existing health system may help resolve these differences.